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html full tutorial
HTML-1
Basic HTML Elements. all information about html. in this post you will know about html. how to use html.


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HTML-1
Basic HTML Elements


Introduction


The World wide web is an exciting new medium,bringing 

information,images,advertising and what not to every 

desktop.Do you know that everything that you see on 

the web is documents written in a special langauge 

called HTML or Hypertext Markup Language. This 

language tells the browsers like Mosaic or Internet 

Explorer how to display text,pictures and links on the 

screen.


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This chapter will present to you the basics of HTML by 

showing to you the original HTML source code and its 

output on your browser. so,let’s not waste time and 

straightaway get to the point.

HTML And Its Capabilities

before we actually start to learning and writing HTML 

codes,we must know what it is and what it can do along 

with its limitations.

HTML is document-layout and hyperlink-specification 

language.i.e., a language used to design the layout of 

a document and to specify the hyperlinks.

HTML tells the browser how to display the contents of 

a hypertext document i.e., a document including 

text,images and other support media. The language also 

tells how to make a document interective through 

special hyperlings. prerequisitesThrough HTML is a language that supports multimedia and new page layout features yet it has its limitations.

HTML is not a word processing tool; it is not a 

desktop publishing solution or even a programming 

language. It is just a page layput and Hyperlink 

specification language.


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Writing HTML Documents

HTML is made up of elements or tags and 

attributes,which work together to identify document 

parts and tell browser how to display them.

All HTML tags are contained with angle brackets (<>)

e.g.,<head> is a tag. similarly <H1> is a tag. please 

note that you can type HTML in capital letters as well 

as in small letters. A browser treat both of them in 

the same manner. However though out this chapter and 

the coming chapter of HTML we shall be using capitals 

for HTML tags to make them stand out from the rest of 

the text.


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HTML Document Structure
An HTML document consists of text. which comprises the 

content of the document and tags. which define the 

structure and appearance of the document the basic 

structure of an HTML document is simple with the 

entire document bound by a pair of <HTML> tags,

image of HTML Document Structure.

The <HEAD>-</HEAD> tags make the header of the 

document and <Body>-</Body> tags make the body of the 

HTML document. Header-that appears on the top of the 

window and Body-that appears in the windows.  

The <HTML> tag identifies the document as an HTML 

document. An HTML document begins with <html> and ends 

with </html> Here <HTML> Starts the HTML tag and 

</HTML> ends the HTML tag


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<HTML>

The Head tags

The <head> tag contains information about the document 

including its title, scripts used, style definitions 

and document descriptions. The <head> tag is entered 

between <html>tags. for example:

<html>
<head>
    ………header information comes here
</head>
</html>
 ……HTML DOCUMENT LINES HERE
</HTML>
     
The <TITLE> tag

This tag contains the document title. The title 

specified inside <TITLE> tag appears on the browsers 

title bar. It will be visibly clear to you when you 

start doing examples:

The <TITLE> tag is entered between the opening and 

closing <HEAD> tags
<html>
<head>
          …<title> document title here
 </title>
  </head>
   </html>

The <body>

The <body> tag encloses all the tags. attributes and 

information to be displayed in the web page. The 

<body> tag is entered below the closing </html> tag 

and above the closing <html> tag as shown below:

example:


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     <html>
          <head>


          <title>Document title here

     </title>


       </head>


    <body>all the tags attributes, and information in  


   the document body go here…


    </body>

   </html>
         
HTML writing tools

 As for making and testing your document. the easiest 

waiy to do this is to create and view them on your 

personal computer. This may be done usiing an html 

editor like frontpage or frontpage, express, but i 

prefer to use a text proceser like crome and like 

mozilla firefox.


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To create an html document using a text editor, follow 

the steps, given below Please note the you can use and 

text editor that lets you create plain text files.
for illustration purposes we are using the default 

text editor note pad++. 

Container and Empty Elements.
In HTML there are two types of elements-one that 

requires a starting as well as ending tags, and 

another that requires just a starting tag and not an 

ending tags. These two typs are known as:
 container element and enpty element, following lines 

example these two types of tags.

container Elements.

This type of HTML elements require pair tags a 

starting as well as an ending tag.

 <title>………….</title>
<head>……………</head>
notice that an eanding tag is starting tag except that 

it begins  with a slash symbol.
some examples these two typw tags .

<HTML>…….</HTML>
<TITLE>…….</TITLE>
<HEAD>……..</HEAD>
<B>………..</B>
<CENTER>…….</CENTER>
The continer tag affect everiything that comes between 

their starting and ending tag.


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Enpty Elements.
This type of HTML elements require just a starting tag 

and not an ending tag <br>,<base> empty elements just 

carry out their specific job <hr> inserts a hori

zontal rule and <br> breaks a line. 
Some examples of empty elements are:


<br>
<base>
<basefont>
<hr>
<img>
<link>

noW You can define container andempty elements easily 


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as shown on adjacent def box.

HTML Tag Structure.
The structure of an HTML tag is being discussed in 

following lines:


1.Everyi HTML tag consists of a tag name , sometimes 

followed by an optional list of attributes, all placed 

between apening and closing angle brackets(<and>).

2 Tag attributes, if any, come after the tag name, 

each separated by one or more tag, space, or return 

characters. Their order of appearance is not 

important.

3 a tag attribute s vailue if any is given after the 

equal sign= in qqquotes generally after the attribute 

name. for example, 
<a href=”http://www.rsnaruka.com”>
 if the attribute-value is a single word or number 

spaces in between then you can omit quotation marks, 

some of examples of HTML tags with attributes are:
<a href=”www.rsnaruka.com”>
<dl compact>
<body bgcolor=red>
<hr witdh=30%>
i am not explaining these tags here. these are given 

just for example purpose. you will learn to understand 

basic HTML tags in the forth coming section.

Basic HTML Tags.
With all the previously explained knowledge, you are 

now ready to learn basic HTML tags. along with their 

syntax and usage. Let us discuss some basic HTML tags 

with some examples and illustrations.

The HTML Tag

The <HTML> Tags are used to mark the beginning and end 

of an HTML document. This tag does not have any effect 

on appearance of document. This tag is used to make 

browser and other programs know that this is an HTML 

document. Inside the <HTML> and </HTML> Document’s 

<head> and <body> tags lie.

The Dir Attribute

This attribute of <HTML> tag specifies in which the 

browser should present text within the entire 

document. This attribute can have values either itr by 

default the value of this attribute is Itr, the value 

rtl is used for languages like chinese or hebrew.

Example: <HTML DIR=ltr>

The LANG attribute of <HTML> tag specifies the 

language you have generally used within the document. 

As You know, these days web pages are designed in many 

languages specify English language and french 

language.


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