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Computer Networking.

Computer1.computer networking notes  in this post you will know about types of computer networkin  and  computer networking tutorial or you can also know about uses of computer networkcomputer networking notes  and in last advantages of computer network let’s start.

What is Networking? What is Computer Networking?Knowledge of Computer Networking.

1.Introduction.

Computer Networking


In today’s age, Network are everywhere and our lives are influenced by them directly or indirectly.
Do you know that you use a network when you take out some cash from local atm? whenever you send an email or use internet, again you are using network.
when you want to book your railway ticket or airline tickets or hotel rooms,you are using a networking.

The cable t.v that comes to  your room is again because of a network. There are other numberous examples of network usage in your daily lives.

In most of these cases, you’ll find that it is the computer network that making it realize. 

The advent of communication technology an computer technology have created wonders for common man. The merging of computer and communications has had a deep influence on the way computer systems are organized.

The old model of a single computer serving all of the organization needs, is rapidly being replaced  by one in which a large number of separate but interconnected computers do the job.

These systems are called computers networks. In this chapter, we are going to talk about computer networks. briefly,associated terminology and related concepts along with a brief discussion on network security.

Let’s us begin discussion with formal definition of a computer network.


2.What is Network?

Tanenbaum defines a network as an inter connected collection of autonomous computers.

Two Computers are said to be inter connected if they are capable of exchanging information,

central to this definition is the fact the computers are autonomous. this means that no computer on the network can start, stop or control another.

Following figure shows you a typical network.

Computer Networking




so,buy now it must be clear to you that a computer network consist of two or more computers that are linked together.

This facilitates resource sharing,file exchange,electronic communication etc. as it will become clear to you in the coming section.

 3.Need For Networking.

Before getting into the technical details of computer networks, we must find out why people are interested in it and what makes it necessary for the survival of ane organization in thhis competitive era .  

Computer Networking

3.Network Goals

Many organizations already have a substantial number of computers, often located far apart. For example, a company with many offeces may have computers at each location to keep track of customer orders, monitor sales, and do the local payroll. Previously, each of these computers may have worked in isolation from others but at some point, management decided to connect them to gather information about entire company.
In general we can refer to it as
1.RESOURCE SHARINTG.

The aim is to make all programs, data and peripherals available to anyone  on the network irrespective of the  physical location ofthe resources and the user.

2. RELITY. 

A file can have copics, on two or three different machines, so if one of them is unavailable (hardware crash) the other copies could be used, for military, banking, air reservation and many other applications, it is of great importance.

3/ COST FECTOR,

Personal computers have better price/performance ratio than micro computer so it is  better to have  PC one per user with data stored on one shared file server

4/COMMUNICATION MEDIUM.

Network  it is possible  for managers, working far apart to prepare financial report of the company . The changees at one end can be immediantely noticed at another and hence it speeds up co-opration among them.

4.Application of Natworks.

Computer networks have made a major impact on the society as a whole but we will  discuss only the important ones.

1.SHARING
The potential advantage of network is to provide an easy and flexible means of sharing. therre are three distinct types of sharing:


a. Peripherals.
 These are often expencive .it is impractical for each computer on the network to have both it’s laser printer(for quality printer) and dotmatrix printer(for all general printouts).
a main frame may have one of each connceted  to it allowinng all user controlled access in a cost effective manner.
b. users of a multiuser system can share and exchange information in a number of ways. examples are sending electronic mail or having controled  access to the some files or data base.
c. in a traditional time sharing system, all control is performed centrally if the processor fails then the entire system fails  in a network system this need not be the case. the failure of one node should not have a domain effect on the rest this is called distributed control and is characteristic of networked system.

 

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